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Andreas Schmidt

Andreas Schmidt
Organization: FZI Research Center for Information Technologies
User Profile Andreas.Schmidt
Phone+49 721 9654-732
Homepage: http://andreas.schmidt.name

Andreas Schmidt studied computer science at the University of Karlsruhe from 1994 until 1999. He has been working in the database research group at FZI (now part of IPE) since February 2000 (first as Researcher, starting September 2003 as deputy department manager) and has become department manager in September 2005, coordinating the activities of the team of Prof. Lockemann and the competence field "Knowledge and Learning" within the Research Unit Information Process Engineering.

He was technical project manager for the implementation of CoastBase, a European virtual integration project for coastal and marine data and information. Subsequently he was working on Learning in Process (LIP), a European research project (FP5) with the focus on embedding e-learning into everyday work by delivering learning objects on demand based on a competency-oriented approach. In this project, the knowledge maturing vision was born. Within the project Im Wissensnetz ("In the Knowledge Web"), he has been investigating in how far these learning facilitation services can be transfered to scientific working processes under special consideration of informal learning processes.

Furthermore, he has been involved in the EU project AGENT-DYSL aiming at adaptive reading support for pupils with dyslexia and the SOPRANO IP on ambient assisted living where he is exploring ontology-based context management.

Role in the project

Andreas Schmidt is the Scientific Coordinator and main contact for the MATURE IP, including dissemination activities.

Activities

Publications

2013

Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas
Barrieren in der Wissensentwicklung und -weitergabe. Analyseinstrumente und Strategien zur Überwindung
In: Laske, Stephan and Orthey, Astrid and Schmid, Michael J. (eds.): PersonalEntwickeln, Luchterhand, 2013, pp. 5.91/1-18

Abstract In diesem Beitrag erfahren Sie, warum die Berücksichtigung motivationaler, sozialer und kultureller Faktoren für die Wissensentwicklung von entscheidender Bedeutung ist, welche sich daraus ergebenden Barrieren von besonderer Bedeutung sind, wie sich diese Faktoren systematisch analysieren lassen, und wie sie sich durch geeignete Maßnahmen überwinden lassen.

Schmidt, Andreas
Wissensreifung: Eine neue Perspektive auf die Wissensentwicklung in Unternehmen
horizonte, vol. 2013, no. 41, 2013, pp. 24-26

Abstract Wissensreifung ist eine neue Perspektive auf die Wissensentwicklung in Arbeitsumgebungen. Sie konzentriert sich darauf, wie Aktivitäten und Lernprozesse des einzelnen Mitarbeiters zur Fortentwicklung der Organisation, ihrer Innovations- und Anpassungsfähigkeit beitragen. Sie zeigt Barrieren auf, wo dies nicht funktioniert. Und zeigt Wege auf, wie man diese Barrieren überwinden kann.

Kaschig, Andreas, Maier, Ronald, Sandow, Alexander, Lazoi, Mariangela, Schmidt, Andreas, Barnes, Sally-Anne, Bimrose, Jenny, Brown, Alan, Bradley, Claire, Kunzmann, Christine, Mazarakis, Athanasios
Organisational Learning from the Perspective of Knowledge Maturing Activities
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. , no. 3, 2013, pp.

Abstract The level of similarity of knowledge work across occupations and industries allows for the design of supportive information and communication technology (ICT) that can be widely used. In a previous ethnographically-informed study, we identified activities that can be supported to increase knowledge maturing, conceptualized as goal-oriented learning on a collective level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of support and success of these knowledge maturing activities and to contrast them with their perceived importance, in order to identify those which have the highest potential for being supported by ICT. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through telephone interviews with representatives from 126 organizations throughout Europe in a sample stratified according to size, sector and knowledge-intensity. The activities that appear to be most promising are ‘reflecting on and refining work practices and processes’, ‘finding people with particular knowledge or expertise’, as well as ‘assessing, verifying and rating information’. Rich empirical material about how these activities are performed and also the issues that emerged and need to be managed were collected. Three clusters of organizations were identified: best performing organizations, people- and awareness-oriented organizations and hesitant formalists. It was found that a balanced knowledge strategy that leaned towards personalization outperformed a codification strategy.

2012

Ravenscroft, Andrew, Schmidt, Andreas, Cook, John, Bradley, Claire
Designing social media for informal learning and knowledge maturing in the digital workplace
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 28, no. 3, 2012, pp. 235-249

Abstract This paper presents an original approach to designing social media that support informal learning in the digital workplace. It adapts design-based research to take into account the embeddedness of interactions within digitally mediated work-based contexts. The approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and evaluation of software tools supporting a particular type of informal learning called knowledge maturing. The paper: introduces and presents the rationale for, and concept of, knowledge maturing; presents a new design methodology for developing social media that support informal learning and knowledge maturing; focuses on one prototype, for ‘people tagging for organisational development’, that was produced by the methodology (and concisely describes two others); presents the formative evaluation of the highlighted prototype; and finally, discusses the implications and insights arising from this work.

Braun, Simone, Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas
People Tagging and Ontology Maturing: An Enterprise Social Media Approach to Competence Management
International Journal for Knowledge and Learning, vol. , no. , 2012, pp.

Abstract Semantic People Tagging is an Enterprise 2.0-style approach to making expertise and individual capabilities transparent. By combining it with a collaborative ontology editor and thus the possibility to construct a shared vocabulary and understanding, it can be a supplement for cumbersome competence management, or expert nder solutions, which lack acceptance among employees, and suer from outdated data. It gives human resources a timely overview of available and required competencies based on peer reviews and actual usage. However, it also needs to be tailored to the cultural characteristics of a speci c company. Therefore, we have developed a design framework for semantic people tagging. We want to present the general approach based on the ontology maturing concept of gradual formalization and its implementation based on a social semantic bookmarking system. Focus group interviews with HR experts have further yielded insights into the wider context and validated the concept. The system has been introduced and evaluated at a company for career advising.

2011

Mazarakis, Athanasios, Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas, Braun, Simone
Culture Awareness for Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Organizations
In: Motivation und kulturelle Barrieren bei der Wissensteilung im Enterprise 2.0, Workshop auf der Mensch & Computer 2011, 2011

Abstract The success and sustainability of informal learning support at the workplace largely depends on motivational, social, and cultural aspects of the involved individuals, teams, and organizations. In this paper, we present our empirical findings from a large-scale interview-based study on those aspects with respect to knowledge development in companies. We draw some conclusions that influence the development of future culturally aware systems for the enterprise and organizations.

Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas
Ethnographically Informed Studies as a Methodology for Motivation Aware Design Processes
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology-Enhanced Learning, ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2011

Abstract While motivational aspects have been recognized as important factors for IT support for learning, it has been difficult to integrate them into requirements engineering processes. We propose ethnographically informed studies as an effective means that has been successfully applied in two research projects as part of their design processes and discuss the remaining challenges.

Cook, John, Schmidt, Andreas, Kunzmann, Christine, Braun, Simone
The challenge of integrating motivational and affective aspects into the design of networks of practice
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL 11), ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2011

Abstract In this position paper, we (i) set out the background, problems and questions involved in moving towards a design methodology for incorporating motivational and affective factors in networks of practice, (ii) define networks of practice, highlighting that motivational and affective factors are intertwined with a range of other complex issues, (iii) examine some of these aforementioned problems using a specific example from the MATURE IP (http://mature-ip.eu/) called people tagging, and use this case (iv) to delineate the challenge of integrating motivational aspects into the design of networks of practice.

Kump, Barbara, Knipfer, Kristin, Pammer, Viktoria, Schmidt, Andreas, Maier, Ronald, Kunzmann, Christine, Cress, Ulrike, Lindstaedt, Stefanie N.
The Role of Reflection in Maturing Organizational Know-how
In: 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Learning Networks (ARNets11), in conjunction with EC-TEL 2011, Palermo (Italy), September 21, 2011, 2011

Abstract The Knowledge Maturing Phase Model has been presented as a model aligning knowledge management and organizational learning. The core argument underlying the present paper is that maturing organizational know-how requires individual and collaborative reflection at work. We present an explorative interview study that analyzes reflection at the workplace in four organizations in different European countries. Our qualitative findings suggest that reflection is not equally self-evident in different settings. A deeper analysis of the findings leads to the hypothesis that different levels of maturity of processes come along with different expectations towards the workers with regard to compliance and flexibility, and to different ways of how learning at work takes place. Furthermore, reflection in situations where the processes are in early maturing phases seems to lead to consolidation of best practice, while reflection in situations where processes are highly standardized may lead to a modification of these standard processes. Therefore, in order to support the maturing of organizational know-how by providing reflection support, one should take into account the degree of standardisation of the processes in the target group.

2010

Kaschig, Andreas, Maier, Ronald, Sandow, Alexander, Lazoi, Mariangela, Barnes, Sally-Anne, Bimrose, Jenny, Bradley, Claire, Brown, Alan, Kunzmann, Christine, Mazarakis, Athanasios, Schmidt, Andreas
Knowledge Maturing Activities and Practices Fostering Organisational Learning: Results of an Empirical Study
In: Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 28 - October 1, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6383, Springer, 2010, pp. 151-166

Abstract Knowledge work is performed in all occupations and across all industries. The level of similarity of knowledge work allows for designing supporting tools that can be widely used. In this paper an activity-based perspective towards knowledge work is taken. Based on findings from a previous ethnographically-informed study, we identified valuable activities to be supported in order to increase knowledge maturing inside companies. The goal of this paper is to contribute to which knowledge maturing activities are deemed important, so that they can be supported by IT services. Quantitative and qualitative data have been collected in 126 organisations of different size, sector and knowledge intensity. Important feedback and issues emerged and need to be managed in order to support success in the knowledge maturing activities that allow improvement of organisational learning through the dissemination and application of the most appropriate knowledge.

Ravenscroft, Andrew, Schmidt, Andreas, Cook, John
Designing Complex Systems for Informal Learning and Knowledge Maturing in the ‘Web 2.0 workplace’
In: Proceedings of International Conference on Educational Media (Ed-Media) 2010, Toronto, June 29-July 2, 2010

Abstract This article presents an original approach to designing complex systems to realise informal learning and knowledge maturing that is being conducted as part of a large-scale EC project called MATURE. In addressing the challenge of designing work integrated Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) systems within the ‘web 2.0 workplace’, we have developed and tested an agile and ‘federated’ approach to the design of complex social and semantic technologies. This follows a paradigm of Deep Learning Design that incorporates: early technical and conceptual Design Studies; Use Cases of envisaged scenarios; Demonstrators which synthesise the technical and user requirements; and, a flexible Evaluation Framework that coordinates the related activities. After presenting this approach and how it is realised in an ongoing project, we offer some conclusions about designing complex socio-technical systems for TEL in the future.

Ravenscroft, Andrew, Schmidt, Andreas, Cook, John
Designing for Motivation in TEL: Relevance, Meaning and Value in Context
In: 1st International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2010

Schmidt, Andreas
Motivation, Affective Aspects, and Knowledge Maturing
In: 1st International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2010

Braun, Simone, Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas
People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management
In: Randall, David and Salembier, Pascal (eds.): From CSCW to Web2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, Computer Supported Cooperative Work vol. , Springer, 2010

Abstract Competence Management approaches suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustain-able success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. To overcome these problems, we propose a collabora-tive competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes. We addressed this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the con-ceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface. Following evolutionary prototyping within the design-based research methodology we conducted two field experiments in parallel with the system development in order to test the approach of people tagging in general and to explore motivational and social aspects in particular.

2009

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
Mit Social Semantic Bookmarking zur nützlichen Ontologie
i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien, vol. 8, no. , 2009, pp.

Abstract Dieser Artikel präsentiert das SOBOLEO-System und das zugrundeliegende Ontologiereifungsprozessmodell für die kollaborative Ontologieentwicklung. Man kann beobachten, dass die meisten aktuellen Ontologieentwicklungsprozesse und -werkzeuge von einer organisatorischen, personellen, technischen und zeitlichen Trennung zwischen Entwicklung und Nutzung der Ontologie ausgehen – eine Trennung, die wiederum häufig zu kostspieligen und nicht an ihre Nutzung angepasste Ontologien führt. Unser Ansatz überwindet durch diese Trennung verursachten Schwierigkeiten mittels Methoden und Werkzeuge, die die Nutzer der Ontologie in die Lage versetzen, diese selbst zu entwickeln, und zwar im gleichen System, das die Ontologie nutzt und zu dem Zeitpunkt und Umfang wie jeweils nötig (arbeitsintegriert).

Kunzmann, Christine, Schmidt, Andreas, Braun, Volker, Czech, David, Fletschinger, Benjamin, Kohler, Silke, Lüber, Verena
Integrating Motivational Aspects into the Design of Informal Learning Support in Organizations
In: 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, September 2-4, 2009, Graz, Austria, 2009

Abstract Motivational aspects in knowledge management have so far largely been considered from the perspective of designing and implementing incentives that influence the extrinsic motivation of employees to participate, contribute, share etc. This is increasingly considered problematic so that this contribution takes a more holistic viewpoint by analyzing and systematizing barriers that have an impact on the motivation to engage in knowledge maturing activities. Based on an ethnographic study and targeted semi-structured interviews, a model is presented that decomposes the motivational aspects. Furthermore, it is presented how motivational aspects can be incorporated into the design of learning support systems.

Schmidt, Andreas, Hinkelmann, Knut, Ley, Tobias, Lindstaedt, Stefanie, Maier, Ronald, Riss, Uwe
Conceptual Foundations for a Service-oriented Knowledge and Learning Architecture: Supporting Content, Process and Ontology Maturing
In: Schaffert, Sebastian and Tochtermann, Klaus and Pellegrini, Tassilo (eds.): Networked Knowledge - Networked Media: Integrating Knowledge Management, New Media Technologies and Semantic Systems, Springer, 2009

Abstract Effective learning support in organizations requires a flexible and personalized toolset that brings together the individual and the organizational perspective on learning. Such toolsets need a service-oriented infrastructure of reusable knowledge and learning services as an enabler. This contribution focuses on conceptual foundations for such an infrastructure as it is being developed within the MATURE IP and builds on the knowledge maturing process model on the one hand, and the seeding-evolutionary growth-reseeding model on the other hand. These theories are used to derive maturing services, for which initial examples are presented.

Zacharias, Valentin, Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas
Social Semantic Bookmarking with SOBOLEO
In: Murugesan, San (eds.): Handbook of Research on Web 2.0, 3.0 and X.0: Technologies, Business, and Social Applications, IGI Global, 2009

2008


Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Learning in Enterprise 2.0 and Beyond (LEB-2008), Maastricht, The Netherlands, September 17, 2008.


Workshop on Ontology Content and Evaluation in Enterprise (OnToContent 2007) + Quantitative Semantic Methods for the Internet (QSI). Proceedings.

Schmidt, Andreas
MATURE: Den Wissensreifungsprozess in Unternehmen verbessern
In: Ockenfeld, Marlies (eds.): Verfügbarkeit von Informationen - 30. Online-Tagung der DGI / 60. Jahrestagung der DGI. Frankfurt am Main, 15. - 17. Oktober 2008, Proceedings, 2008

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Walter, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
Von Tags zu semantischen Beziehungen: kollaborative Ontologiereifung
In: Gaiser, Birgit and Hampel, Thorsten and Panke, Stefanie (eds.): Good Tags and Bad Tags - Social Tagging in der Wissensorganisation, Medien in der Wissenschaft vol. 47, Waxmann, 2008, pp. 163-173

Abstract Die Popularität von Tagging-Ansätzen hat gezeigt, dass dieses Ordnungsprinzip für Nutzer insbesondere auf kollaborativen Plattformen deutlich zugänglicher ist als strukturierte und kontrollierte Vokabulare. Allerdings stoßen Tagging-Ansätze oft an ihre Grenzen, wo sie keine ausreichende semantische Präzision ausbilden können. Umgekehrt können ontologiebasierte Ansätze zwar die semantische Präzision erreichen, werden jedoch (besonders aufgrund der schwerfälligen Pflegeprozesse) von den Nutzern kaum akzeptiert. Wir schlagen eine Verbindung beider Welten vor, die auf einer neuen Sichtweise auf die Entstehung von Ontologien fußt: die Ontologiereifung. Anhand zweier Werkzeuge aus dem Bereich des Social Semantic Bookmarking und der semantischen Bildsuche zeigen wir, wie Anwendungen aussehen können, die eine solche Ontologiereifung (in die jeweiligen Nutzungsprozesse integriert) ermöglichen und fördern.

Schmidt, Andreas
Knowledge Maturing and the Participatory Enterprise
In: Online Educa 2008, Berlin, December 3-5, 2008

Ravenscroft, Andrew, Braun, Simone, Cook, John, Schmidt, Andreas, Bimrose, Jenny, Brown, Alan, Bradley, Claire
Ontologies, Dialogue and Knowledge Maturing: Towards a Mashup and Design Study
In: Schmidt, Andreas and Attwell, Graham and Braun, Simone and Lindstaedt, Stefanie and Maiaer, Ronald and Ras, Eric (eds.): 1st International Workshop on Learning in Enterprise 2.0 and Beyond, CEUR Workshop Proceedings vol. 383, 2008

Abstract This paper proposes an initial design study to examine and test some of the key concepts and issues within a large-scale European research project that is exploring and aiming to realise learning as a process of knowledge maturing in the workplace. It will outline some of these concepts, based on a contemporary (or Web 2.0 driven) articulation of how ontologies can be acquired, externalised and exploited by a user-community and introduce a new role for learning dialogue - through developing work into „dialogue games‟. An initial scenario, or „thought experiment‟, is proposed that is grounded on currently available ontology development (SOBOLEO) and learning dialogue (InterLoc) web-technologies and how these could be integrated, or „mashed up‟, to improve the management, understanding and application of labour market information in the context of careers advice. Finally, we also consider the potential role of m-learning techniques and the implications about context that these give rise to.


Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Learning in Enterprise 2.0 and Beyond (LEB-2008), Maastricht, The Netherlands, September 17, 2008. In conjunction with the 3rd European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (ECTEL 08), Maastricht, The Netherlands, September, 2008.

Nelkner, Tobias, Reinhardt, Wolfgang, Attwell, Graham
Concept of a Tool Wrapper Infrastructure for Supporting Services in a PLE
In: Schmidt, Andreas and Attwell, Graham and Braun, Simone and Lindstaedt, Stefanie and Maier, Ronald and Ras, Eric (eds.): 1st International Workshop on Learning in Enterprise 2.0 and Beyond, CEUR Workshop Proceedings vol. 383, 2008

Abstract As one of the most relevant way of learning after apprenticeship is the informal learning an implementation of a PLE should try to support the learner by mashing up services and tools of every day work, creates cross links between them and gives motivation and support for personal and individual style of learning. This paper presents implementations and ideas for the whole collection of necessary pieces of software to provide a PLE in a bottom up manner. A server implementation is introduced which is based on a SOA approach and which includes an extractor for metadata of file objects. This module is furthermore able to run a semantic analysis on unstructured texts which results in for example in high-quality keywords and identification of persons. Taking this as technical background the social functions are explained which are identified as the functions a PLE is supposed to provide more than any knowledge management or e-learning software. Closing, these functions are converted in ideas of possible implementations of tools and services, back up by graphical mock-ups.

Maier, Ronald, Thalmann, Stefan
Informal learner styles: Individuation, interaction, in-form-ation
In: Schmidt, Andreas and Attwell, Graham and Braun, Simone and Lindstaedt, Stefanie and Maier, Ronald and Ras, Eric (eds.): 1st International Workshop on Learning in Enterprise 2.0 and Beyond, CEUR Workshop Proceedings vol. 383, 2008

Abstract Web 2.0 has sparked tremendously increased interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there have been abundant activities of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in organizational settings in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an ethnographically informed study, this paper presents three idealized, richly described scenarios of informal learner styles which are used in order to develop theses on the relationship of Web 2.0 and workplace learning.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Walter, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
Using the Ontology Maturing Process Model for Searching, Managing and Retrieving Resources with Semantic Technologies
In: OnTheMove Federated Conferences 2008 (DAO, COOP, GADA, ODBASE), Monterrey, Mexico, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. , Springer, 2008

Abstract Semantic technologies are very helpful in improving existing systems for searching, managing and retrieving of resources, e.g. image search, bookmarking or expert finder systems. They enhance these systems through background knowledge stored in ontologies. However, in most cases, resources in these systems change very fast. In consequence, they require a dynamic and agile change of underlying ontologies. Also, the formality of these ontologies must fit the users needs and capabilities and must be appropriate and usable. Therefore, a continuous, collaborative and work or task integrated development of these ontologies is required. In this paper, we present how these requirements occur in real world applications and how they are solved and implemented using our Ontology Maturing Process Model.

Schmidt, Andreas, Hinkelmann, Knut, Lindstaedt, Stefanie, Ley, Tobias, Maier, Ronald, Riss, Uwe
Conceptual Foundations for a Service-Oriented Knowledge & Learning Architecture: Supporting Content, Process, and Ontology Maturing
In: 8th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 08), Graz, 2008

Abstract The knowledge maturing model views learning activities as embedded into, interwoven with, and even indistinguishable from everyday work processes. Learning is understood as an inherently social and collaborative activity. The Knowledge Maturing Process Model structures this process into five phases: expressing ideas, distributing in communities, formalizing, ad-hoc learning and standardization. It is applicable not only for content but also to process knowledge and semantics. In the MATURE IP two toolsets will be develop that support the maturing process: a personal learning environment and an organisation learning environment integrating the levels of individuals, communities and organisation. The development is guided by the SER theory of seeding, evolutionary growth and reseeding and is based on generally applicable maturing services.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Graf, Ulrich
Partizipative Entwicklung von Kompetenzontologien
In: Workshop Nutzerinteraktion im Social Semantic Web, Mensch & Computer - 8. Fachuebergreifende Konferenz - M&C 2008 (Sept. 8-9, 2008, Lübeck, Germany), 2008

Abstract Ontologiebasierte Ansätze haben sich im Bereich des Kompetenzmanagments, z.B. für die Zusammenstellung von Teams, als vielversprechend herausgestellt. Mit dem Modell des Ontologiereifungsprozesses präsentieren wir einen partizipativen Ansatz für die Entwicklung von Kompetenzontologien, der alle Mitarbeiter in einer Organisation miteinbindet. Dadurch können übliche Probleme in der Erstellung und Pflege der Kompetenzontologie, wie fehlende Aktualität oder unterschiedliche Granularität, aber auch der individuellen Kompetenzprofile überwunden werden. Zur Unterstützung des Ontologiereifungsprozesses für das Kompetenzmanagment wurde die AJAX-basierte semantische Social-Bookmarking-Anwendung SOBOLEO entwickelt, welche die aufgaben-integrierte Entwicklung von Kompetenzontologien zusammen mit einem einfach zu nutzenden Interface bietet.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas
People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management
In: 8th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems (COOP '08), Carry-le-Rouet, France, May 20-23, 2008, 2008

Abstract Competence Management approaches, aiming at making transparent individual competencies and their relationship to organizational goals, suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustainable success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. This affects both competency profiles of the individual employee and non-adequate and often also outdated competency catalogs used as a vocabulary for the profiles. To overcome these problems, we propose a collaborative competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes: Web 2.0 oriented bottom-up processes allow every employee to participate and contribute with low usage barriers; i.e. by tagging colleagues; the organizational processes take up and guide these bottom-up developments towards organizational goals. Key idea is that we cannot do competence management completely without an agreed vocabulary (or ontology), i.e. the competency catalog, but we have to make the process of evolving this catalog more collaborative and embedded into its actual usage (e.g., while tagging other employees). Likewise, we do not conceive competency profiles as self-descriptions, but rather as results of collective judgments of others. We approached this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the conceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface.

2007

Maier, Ronald, Schmidt, Andreas
Characterizing Knowledge Maturing: A Conceptual Process Model for Integrating E-Learning and Knowledge Management
In: Gronau, Norbert (eds.): 4th Conference Professional Knowledge Management - Experiences and Visions (WM '07), Potsdam, GITO, 2007, pp. 325-334

Abstract Knowledge management and e-learning both attempt to support learning and knowledge transfer in organizations. However, they aim at knowledge of different degrees of maturity. Central hypothesis of this paper is that the approaches can be integrated on the basis of a process that explicitly aims at designing the transitions of knowledge along varying degrees of maturity. The knowledge maturing process is presented as a conceptual model for explaining and analyzing disruptions in the inter-individual flow of knowledge within organizations. These disruptions can be attributed to a fragmented systems landscape and separated organizational units that foster knowledge of different degrees of maturity. The paper presents criteria for a characterization of this process model and discusses its implications for the design of learning support systems.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Walter, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
The Ontology Maturing Approach to Collaborative and Work-Integrated Ontology Development: Evaluation Results and Future Directions
In: International Workshop on Emergent Semantics and Ontology Evolution (ESOE), ISWC 2007, Busan/Korea, 2007

Abstract Ontology maturing as a conceptual process model is based on the assumption that ontology engineering is a continuous collaborative and informal learning process and always embedded in tasks that make use of the ontology to be developed. For supporting ontology maturing, we need lightweight and easy-to-use tools integrating usage and construction processes of ontologies. Within two applications – ImageNotion for semantic annotation of images and SOBOLEO for semantically enriched social bookmarking – we have shown that such ontology maturing support is feasible with the help of Web 2.0 technologies. In this paper, we want to present the conclusions from two evaluation sessions with end users and summarize requirements for further development.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas
Wikis as a Technology Fostering Knowledge Maturing: What we can learn from Wikipedia
In: 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management (IKNOW '07), Special Track on Integrating Working and Learning in Business (IWL), 2007

Abstract The knowledge maturing theory opens an important macro perspective within the new paradigm of work-integrated learning. Especially wikis are interesting socio-technical systems to foster maturing activities by overcoming typical barriers. But so far, the theory has been mainly based on anecdotal evidence collected from various projects and observations. In this paper, we want to present the results of a qualitative and quantitative study of Wikipedia with respect to maturing phenomena, identifying instruments and measures indicating maturity. The findings, generalized to enterprise wikis, open the perspective on what promotes maturing on a method level and what can be used to spot maturing processes on a technology level.

Schmidt, Andreas
Microlearning and the Knowledge Maturing Process: Towards Conceptual Foundations for Work-Integrated Microlearning Support
In: Lindner, Martin and Bruck, Peter A. (eds.): Micromedia and Corporate Learning. Proceedings of the 3rd International Microlearning 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 2007, Innsbruck University Press, 2007, pp. 99-105

Abstract As a response to the new flexibility in work environments, work-integrated learning on demand is an appropriate form of learning which is in line with microlearning ideas. But in a world of microcontent, we need to consider that not all content is appropriate for everybody. The knowledge maturing process allows for distinguishing between different levels of maturity, and technical learning support based on the maturity level can provide automated guidance to make microlearning more efficient.

Happel, Hans-Jörg, Schmidt, Andreas
Knowledge Maturing as a Process Model for Describing Software Reuse
In: 4th Conference Professional Knowledge Management - Experiences and Visions (WM '07), Potsdam, Workshop on Learning Software Organizations (LSO 07), GITO, 2007, pp. 155-164

Abstract Software reuse has become a major topic in software engineering since reusing artifacts has an important effect on the cost and quality of software products. Accordingly, understanding and managing the mechanisms of software reuse is important for every organization that develops software. In this paper we describe a knowledge maturing process in software engineering and use it to analyze two cases of reusable software artifacts. We argue that the "reusability" of a software artifact is not just an immanent property of the artifact itself, but depends on the "maturity" of the knowledge the artifact embodies. We show that the notion of knowledge maturing can serve as a useful lens for understanding reuse processes and suggest further investigations towards a more holistic concept of reusability.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Walter, Andreas, Nagypal, Gabor, Zacharias, Valentin
Ontology Maturing: a Collaborative Web 2.0 Approach to Ontology Engineering
In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Social and Collaborative Construction of Structured Knowledge at the 16th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 07), Banff, Canada, 2007

Abstract Most of the current methodologies for building ontologies rely on specialized knowledge engineers. This is in contrast to real-world settings, where the need for maintenance of domain specific ontologies emerges in the daily work of users. But in order to allow for participatory ontology engineering, we need to have a more realistic conceptual model of how ontologies develop in the real world. We introduce the ontology maturing processes which is based on the insight that ontology engineering is a collaborative informal learning process and for which we analyze characteristic evolution steps and triggers that have users engage in ontology engineering within their everyday work processes. This model integrates tagging and folksonomies with formal ontologies and shows maturing pathways between them. As implementations of this model, we present two case studies and the corresponding tools. The first is about image-based ontology engineering (introducing so-called imagenotions), the second about ontology-enabled social bookmarking (SOBOLEO). Both of them are inspired by lightweight Web 2.0 approaches and allow for realtime collaboration.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
Ontology Maturing with Lightweight Collaborative Ontology Editing Tools
In: Gronau, Norbert (eds.): 4th Conference on Professional Knowledge Management - Experiences and Visions, Workshop on Productive Knowledge Work (ProKW 07), GITO, 2007, pp. 217-226

Abstract Ontology building is an important prerequisite for state-of-the-art semantic technologies for knowledge worker support. But ontology engineering methods have so far neglected the early phase of ontology building where a conceptualization only exists rather informally and underlies continuous evolution through collaboration and interaction within the community. We have to view ontology building as a maturing process that requires collaborative editing support and the integration into the daily work processes of knowledge workers. In spirit of current Web 2.0 applications, we present an AJAX-based lightweight ontology editor as a first approach to this problem.

Braun, Simone, Schmidt, Andreas, Zacharias, Valentin
SOBOLEO: vom kollaborativen Tagging zur leichtgewichtigen Ontologie
In: Gross, Tom (eds.): Mensch & Computer - 7. Fachübergreifende Konferenz - M&C 2007, Oldenbourg Verlag, 2007, pp. 209-218

Abstract Bisher gibt es kein integriertes Werkzeug, das sowohl die kollaborative Erstellung eines Indexes relevanter Internetressourcen („Social Bookmarking“) als auch einer gemeinsamen Ontologie, die zur Organisation des Indexes genutzt wird, integriert unterstützt. Derzeitige Werkzeuge gestatten entweder die Erstellung einer Ontologie oder die Strukturierung von Ressourcen entsprechend einer vorgegebenen, unveränderlichen Ontologie bzw. ganz ohne jegliche Struktur. In dieser Arbeit zeigen wir, wie sich kollaboratives Tagging und kollaborative Ontologieentwicklung vereinen lassen, so dass jeweilige Schwächen vermieden werden und die Stärken einander ergänzen. Wir präsentieren SOBOLEO, ein System, das kollaborativ und web-basiert die Erstellung, Erweiterung und Pflege von Ontologien und gemeinsamer Lesezeichensammlung ermöglicht und gleichzeitig die Annotierung von Internetressourcen mit Konzepten aus der erstellten Ontologie unterstützt.

2005

Schmidt, Andreas
Knowledge Maturing and the Continuity of Context as a Unifying Concept for Knowledge Management and E-Learning
In: Proceedings of I-KNOW 05, Graz, Austria, 2005

Abstract Although both e-learning and knowledge management are about facilitating learning in organization, the major obstacle to bring both of them together can be traced back to different paradigms of learning, resulting from the different nature of the knowledge they are dealing with. In this paper, a knowledge maturing process is presented to illustrate the change of nature and the discontinuities. This lays the foundation for a better understanding. In order to overcome the discontinuities, the consideration of context is proposed, which offers the required continuity.